Sprains and strains are very common injuries. Here are some facts about sprains and strains from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
Injury to muscle or tendon (tendons connect muscles to bone). Acute strains are caused by direct trauma, overstretching, or excessive muscle contraction. Chronic strains occur from prolonged, repetitive movement of muscles and tendons.
► muscle spasm
► muscle weakness
In severe strains, the muscle and/or tendon is partially or completely torn, often incapacitating the individual. Some muscle function will be lost with a moderate strain, where the muscle/tendon is overstretched and slightly torn. With a mild strain, the muscle/tendon is stretched or pulled, slightly.
A stretch and/or tear of a ligament (connective tissue that joins the end of one bone with another). Sprains are caused by direct or indirect trauma to the joint which stretches or ruptures the ligament.
A severe sprain produces excruciating pain at the moment of injury, as ligaments tear completely, or separate from the bone. This loosening makes the joint nonfunctional. A moderate sprain partially tears the ligament, producing joint instability, and some swelling. A ligament is stretched in a mild sprain, but there is no joint loosening.
► physical therapy
► surgery (severe cases)
Maintaining fitness conditioning and stretching is key to prevention. A healthy diet and good rest before athletic events along with drinking plenty of fluids can minimize injuries. #medicine