Signaling Proteins of the Immune System
Cytokines are involved in autocrine signalling, paracrine signalling and endocrine signalling as immunomodulating agents.
➤ tumour necrosis factors
Cytokines are produced by a broad range of cells, including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells.
They are important in health and disease, specifically in host responses to infection, immune responses, inflammation, trauma, sepsis, cancer, and reproduction.